Types of emergency shelters and shelters by the types of materials from which they are built, the choice of a place for a bivouac in an emergency.

More than one and a half hundred primitive emergency shelters and shelters are known that are used in different climatic and geographical areas and differ in construction, size, material from which they are built, and the method of construction. The choice of type of emergency shelter and shelter depends on the specific conditions of the accident, climate, terrain and the like.. 

Types of emergency shelters and shelters by the types of materials from which they are built, the choice of a place for a bivouac in an emergency.

First of all, the victims of the disaster must determine the functional purpose of the shelters, for which they need to understand what threatens the life and health of people the most, from which the shelter should protect from snow, rain, wind, snowstorm, negative temperatures, groundwater, cold soil, mosquitoes poisonous insects, sun, etc..

only due to objectively irresistible reasons for the lack of necessary tools, building materials, etc..

Temporary hastily built shelters not only will not help people, but, on the contrary, can aggravate their plight. I tried to purely conditionally classify the types of shelters by the types of materials from which they are built.

If fabrics, plastic wrap, sleeping bags, blankets, animal skins, cloth upholstery from vehicles, etc. are used as starting materials, then such shelters (awnings, tents, bivouac bags and others) can be called fabric.

If the fabric is covered with a fabric made of tree trunks, poles, branches, metal tubes, then such a shelter becomes frame-fabric. First of all, it’s wigwitches, plague, awnings and others.

A frame covered with spruce branches, leaves and other natural material can be arbitrarily called frame or leaf-frame shelter. These include various canopies, huts, plague, Adyghe house and others.

Buried in the ground burrows, dugouts, half dugouts, caves, niches are earth shelters. Accordingly shelters that delve into the snow snow shelters. These are pits, caves, lairs, trenches, huts and the like..

Snow shelters made of blocks and bricks cut from nast snow block shelters. These include igloos, cabins, huts and more..

If in the block shelters some kind of reinforcing cage was used, it can be called frame-block refuge.

Huts and the like long-term structures built of logs and stones capital shelters. Shelters built from reeds and similar materials reed. Constructed from adobe bricks or by the method of coating with clay solutions of poles driven into the ground adobe.

The choice of a place under the bivouac of the victims of a disaster in an emergency.

To a large extent, the safety of the bivouac depends on where it is located. Even the most reliable shelter will not save the victims if it is placed on a random site that carries a potential threat. Paradoxical as it sounds, the choice of a place for building shelters is often more important than building the shelter itself. The hut, set on the low bank of the river, will be washed away if the river spills as a result of heavy rains that have passed in the upper.

In the mountains, the same camp will instantly be crushed by an erupted mudflow. Digging a snow cave at the base of a steep snow slope means risking that an accidentally falling avalanche will forever bury the cave itself and its inhabitants under a many-meter layer of snow. A igloo placed under a rocky visor or other overhang can be instantly destroyed by a rockfall or a piece of ice or ice falling from above. The same igloo, built on a snow cornice hanging between two rocks, can collapse into the abyss with this cornice.

It should be remembered as an obligatory axiom: you cannot place a bivouac at the base of the gutters, at loose rocks, in places of possible avalanches and rockfalls, on snow and rock cornices and under them. If possible, elevated, bare spaces, saddles of ridges, narrow pipe-shaped gorges and other places where the wind is especially strong should be avoided. It is better to break a bivouac in a place that is clearly visible from the air and the ground, in order to be able to give a distress signal to a flying airplane, helicopter, and facilitate the search for rescue groups.

Usually this is achieved by putting an observational, signal post on a bare hill or by building capital shelters that are not afraid of the wind. In the taiga, it is not recommended to place a bivouac in fire hazardous places, on swampy, waterlogged soils, near rotten, sawn, chopped trees. An inconvenient camp set up in the woods, as there are more mosquitoes, gnats, drips from tree branches for a long time after rains, it is impossible to organize effective monitoring of the surrounding area.

In all areas, but especially in the mountains, in the steppe and desert zones in the spring, it is dangerous to camp in the beds of dry rivers and on low banks. To protect yourself from a possible flash flood, you should carefully inspect the coast. The possible highest point of water rise can be indicated by dried aquatic vegetation on the branches of bushes and trees, the absence of grassy vegetation on the banks and strips of various floating debris brought by water, the absence of rodent burrows (animals make burrows almost always above the level of possible flooding), etc. In spring -year period, places of increased thunderstorm danger must be avoided.

In the coastal zone of the seas, the bivouac should be located above the point of maximum tide, taking into account the possible additional surf surge of water. It is especially dangerous to hide in niches-caves formed on steep banks. A tidal wave can quickly flood such a shelter, and it is extremely difficult to go through the water due to the increased depth and breaking waves, and it is impossible to climb up a cliff because of its steepness. In the tundra, where it is difficult to find enough fuel, the last hour of the day’s transition should be devoted to the search for firewood. In the southern zones, it is undesirable to camp in places of possible accumulation of poisonous insects and snakes.

Based on the book The Great Encyclopedia of Survival in Extreme Situations.
Andrey Ilyichev.

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