A swamp is a direct threat to human life. A swampy area is best avoided. Viscous soil, high humidity, an abundance of bumps and fallen trees, bushes, insects, wet clothes and equipment, swamp fumes, a steady feeling of discomfort and fear dramatically reduce the speed of movement through the swamp and lead to rapid fatigue.
Types of swamps, movement along the swamp and wetlands, features of movement along the swamp.
Finding a dry place to rest in the swamp is almost impossible. Due to humidity, making a fire in a swamp is also very difficult. There may be an unforeseen need for continued daytime movement through the swamp and at night. Rest on one’s feet is extremely dangerous. Therefore, if there is still a need to go through the swamp, then it must be overcome in the daytime and in one jerk.
Before starting the transition through the swamp, it must be carefully examined from the nearest hill or from a tall tree and determine the nature of the surface. After a general inspection of the swamp, it is necessary, first of all, to examine areas with traces of roads, paths, as well as those places where pine grows. Measure with a pole their depth, thickness and density of the peat layer, check the density of the bottom soil.
Types of swamps.
There are many types of swamps. At the same time, different types of swamps can replace each other.
Some swamps form in the coastal part of large bodies of water (lakes, seas). In those areas of the coastal part where the soil consists of small clay particles, a “march” (type of swamp) is gradually formed. Most of the march is covered with water either continuously or is filled with water at high tide. Marches’ vegetation is poor rarely found loose aquatic plants, sedges and cereals.
The surface of the soil can be covered with a touch of microscopic algae. Bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide and other substances, a specific unpleasant odor is noticeable. In some parts of the marsh-type swamp, often near the mouth of streams and rivers flowing into a lake or sea, quicksand forms. During low tide, part of the march is exposed and is very reminiscent of a wet sandy beach, covered with rare grass, this is a dangerous area. Here you can fall into silt to a depth of more than one meter. And getting out on your own is almost impossible. Need outside help.
Waterlogging of the forest is not uncommon. The reason is very high humidity inside the forest and the nature of the soil (very poor drainage). But, some soils contribute to swamping of the forest, others do not. If bog vegetation (sedge, sphagnum moss, etc.) appeared in the forest, then this forest may soon die. Humidity inside the forest is extremely excessive. Trees will no longer evaporate moisture through leaves and needles. Cereals, sedges and other plants will appear, the remains of which form peat. Then cuckoo flax, sphagnum and other mosses will grow, which will accelerate waterlogging. And in the place of the forest a swamp will gradually appear.
Waterlogging can occur in very wet meadows. Cereal meadow cover is replaced by sedge and there is a meadow grass swamp. Water-soaked plant debris forms a semi-decomposed peat mass. A similar phenomenon can occur in the steppes. In the valleys and floodplains of the rivers, marshes of a different type are formed. Their appearance is associated with groundwater. In such swamps, rich vegetation grows..
The soils of lowland marshes in the near-terrace parts of river floodplains are very fertile. Forests of black alder are often found, sedge, reed, cattail, reed, valerian, succession, grass plaque, highlander peppercorn, poisonous cicuta, whitefly, chastushka, calamus swamp grow. Lowland swamps feed on groundwater. Almost all marshes at the beginning of their development are lowland.
In forest, meadow, steppe and lake bogs, due to the large number of plant debris, huge strata of peat are formed. When, due to an increase in the peat layer, the supply of the swamp with groundwater partially ceases, then this swamp becomes a transitional type. Then the connection with groundwater ceases completely and the main source of water is not groundwater, but precipitation in the form of rain and snow. Therefore, the swamp from the lowland becomes upland (water supply comes from above).
Another type of swamp formation is the swamping of lakes. The cause of dying, plants cover the bottom with their own remains, reducing the depth of the reservoir. And from the banks, growing along a shallow bottom towards the middle of the reservoir, other types of plants gradually draw in the surface of the water and form a continuous floating carpet – rafting. Often lakes of this type are formed on the site of abandoned sand or clay quarries. The foundation pit is filled with rainwater, a lake appears and then the process of bogging begins.
Very dangerous. The swamp has a shaky, fluctuating peat cover of ravine. The alloy rests on the ripple in a semi-liquid, gelatinous base or on silt. Sometimes rafting floats in the water flooded swamp. Such swampy swamps, especially flooded swamps, are impassable. A distinctive feature of these swamps is that the forest does not grow on them; when walking, the surface of the swamp fluctuates.
Swamp boots are the same device as snowshoes. The bog access frame from a crude branch is about 1-2 cm thick, about a meter long. Binding of the frame from thinner rods, bast, rope, wire, etc. Fastening to shoes made of rope, a strip of durable fabric, wire, branches, bast, etc..
Overcoming swamps, features of movement along a swamp by a group.
If it is impossible to get around dangerous, swampy areas, then you need to:
Make a long, strong pole for each person.
Cover the path with thick branches or tree trunks.
Criss-cross sturdy, long poles.
To knit and lay mats from branches, reeds, reeds, grass, straw, etc..
Make the Simplest Swamp Boots.
Moving through the swamp should be smooth, with large intervals between people. Necessarily with poles in hand. When the group moves, hedge each other, be ready to come to the rescue. At the same time, you can’t follow the trail, you can punch the surface of the vegetation cover of the swamp with your feet. The lead group (leading in front) should have a long rope insurance. Following him carry several bundles of brushwood, etc. When the lead fails, so that the safety rope does not cut through the rafting, a log, bundles of brushwood, poles should be placed under it.
You can’t go to the rescue of the leader right away with the whole group, you can break through the flooding on a large area and greatly complicate the situation. If the leader is not insured with a rope, then you need to crawl closer to him. From a distance throw a rope with a loop at the end. Or put a long pole in your hands. Or pave a solid flooring around it from improvised material and use a belt, spare clothes, a pole and pull it out.
Having failed in the swamp, do not panic, do not make sudden movements, do not scream. It is necessary to smoothly, leaning on a pole lying across, take a horizontal position as much as possible. Try to reach the bushes or other solid vegetation with your hands. Crawling away from a dangerous place in the opposite direction.
Based on the book “Survival beyond the threshold of civilization”.