In addition to proteins, fats and carbohydrates, which are sources of energy and plastic material, food contains a certain amount of vitamins. Vitamins do not give energy, but are absolutely necessary for the human body in minimal quantities to maintain life.
Water and fat-soluble vitamins, properties and effects of vitamins on human health, the main sources of vitamins A, E, D, B1, B2, B6, PP, C.
Most vitamins are not synthesized in the human body and therefore are considered indispensable substances. Some B and D vitamins are synthesized by intestinal microflora, but in insufficient quantities. Vitamins play an important role in the regulation of chemical and physiological processes. Especially related to the creation and restoration of cells and tissues, as well as metabolic processes.
A lack of vitamins in food leads to painful disorders of a general and specific nature. These disorders sometimes proceed secretly, without visible changes in health, and appear unexpectedly. For example, after severe overwork or physical overstrain. For most hypovitaminosis, common symptoms are characteristic:
There is apathy.
The body’s resistance to colds and infections is reduced.
Water and Fat Soluble Vitamins.
Vitamins are complex substances of an organic nature. Based on their physicochemical properties, they are divided into water and fat soluble. The first include vitamins C (ascorbic acid), P (rutin) and vitamins of the extensive group B (thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, cyancobalamin, nicotinamide, folic and pantothenic acids, etc.). Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K.
The body’s need for certain vitamins depends on many factors. It increases significantly with intensive physical and mental work, with adverse effects on the body (infection, overheating, cooling, etc.). In long trips, the consumption of vitamins by the body increases significantly. Therefore, with a prolonged absence in the diet of vegetables and fruits, it is necessary to ensure the intake of vitamins or multivitamin preparations (dragees).
Currently, several dozen vitamins are known. We will consider the most necessary, the lack of which in nutrition can cause pathological changes in the human body.
Properties and effects of vitamin C on human health.
Vitamin C is involved in redox processes, cellular respiration and protein metabolism. With vitamin C deficiency, the gums become inflamed and bleed, fragility and bleeding of blood vessels increase. The body’s resistance to colds and infectious diseases decreases, metabolic processes are disrupted.
In the average climatic zone with moderate physical exertion, the adult’s need for vitamin C is 50–70 mg per day. For every 1000 kcal of the diet, 18-25 mg of vitamins C is recommended. With this rationing, it is easy to calculate the requirements for substances for the diet of any calorie content. With intense physical work or at elevated temperatures, with injuries, the need for ascorbic acid increases sharply.
The most important sources of vitamin C are vegetables, berries and fruits. It must be remembered that when processing vegetables, ascorbic acid is destroyed quite quickly as a result of oxidation, and is not very resistant to heat. That is why vegetables should be laid in boiling water immediately after cleaning and not be digested.
The main sources of water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, PP, C.
beef, cow’s milk, yeast is especially rich in it. The safety of vitamin B2 during food processing is influenced by the same factors as vitamin B1, and this must be taken into account..
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine).
It plays an important role in protein and fat metabolism, affects the reduction of serum cholesterol in atherosclerosis. B6-vitamin deficiency is characterized by damage to the oral mucosa, dermatitis of the face and scalp, neck, irritability, depression, insomnia.
In the average climatic zone with moderate physical exertion, the adult’s need for pyridoxine is 2-3 mg per day, or 0.8 mg per 1000 kcal. The need increases slightly with abundant protein intake, lower ambient temperature.
Small amounts of pyridoxine are widely distributed in animal products. During cooking, the loss of vitamin B6 is negligible, and during canning they make up a large percentage.
Properties and effects of vitamins PP (niacin) on human health.
Vitamin PP (niacin) is involved in biological oxidation processes in the body. Its insufficiency is characterized by inflammatory changes in the skin, rapid fatigability, weakness, irritability, insomnia.
The adult body needs to receive 15-25 mg of niacin per day, or 6.5 mg per 1000 kcal. The need for vitamin PP increases with low ambient temperatures. Niacin is widely distributed in products of both plant and animal origin. Vitamin PP is resistant to storage, preservation and cooking.
Properties and effects of vitamins A (various forms) on human health.
Vitamin A (various forms) is part of the visual pigment rhodopsin, thanks to which a person sees in the dark. It plays an important role in the life of the epithelium of the outer skin of the skin, mucous membranes, glands.
One of the early signs of vitamin A deficiency is visual impairment in the evening (“night blindness”). There are violations in the condition of the skin, mucous membranes of the eyes. In the average climatic zone with moderate physical activity, the daily requirement of an adult for vitamin A is 1.5-2.5 mg, or 0.6 mg per 1000 kcal.
The yellow pigment, provitamin A (carotene), which turns into Vitamin A in the body, plays a large role in meeting the human need for vitamin A. Vitamin A is found in the body. Significant amounts of it are found in red carrots, red peppers, sorrel, spinach, green onions, in the cloudberry known in the north, a dogrose. Vitamin A is also available in animal products..
With intense physical work or in conditions of high or low temperature, with injuries, the body’s need for vitamin A increases. Vitamin A and carotene are largely destroyed by heat, light, and air in a neutral or alkaline environment. These compounds are fat soluble; therefore, foods rich in them are best consumed with fatty foods..
The main sources of fat-soluble vitamins A, E, D and carotene in human nutrition.
heat treated. That’s why vegetable oils are best added to an already prepared dish (salads, vinaigrettes, etc.).