It is known that the human body is almost 65% composed of water. Water is part of the tissues, without it the normal functioning of organs is impossible. Normal water supply allows metabolic processes, maintaining the heat balance, removing metabolic products, etc..
Water supply and water consumption in the conditions of autonomous existence, search, production, disinfection and storage of water.
A depletion of the body by a liquid by only a few percent leads to disruption of its vital functions, and dehydration of more than 10 percent or more causes deep disturbances that can lead to its death. Therefore, in conditions of autonomous existence, especially in areas with a hot climate, with limited or no water supplies, water supply becomes a problem of paramount importance.
. Since the emergency supply of water is always limited, it is advisable to spend it only when absolutely necessary, using as much as possible any natural water sources. With limited water supplies, especially in hot climates, where the body loses a lot of fluid with sweat, dehydrates, it is very important to reduce sweating. This can be achieved by protecting yourself from direct solar radiation with the help of a simple sunshade. By limiting physical activity in the hot season, moisturizing clothes, etc..
Water purification and disinfection.
You can drink raw water from springs and springs, mountain and forest rivers and streams. But before quenching thirst with water from stagnant or low-flowing bodies of water, it should be cleaned of impurities and disinfected. For cleaning, it is easy to make the simplest filters from several layers of the bandage, from an empty can, having punched 3 4 small holes in the bottom and then filled with sand. You can dig a shallow hole half a meter from the edge of the reservoir, and after a while it will fill with clean, clear water. For disinfection, special preparations are used: pantocide, iodine, cholazone, etc. For disinfecting water, for example, pantocide, 2-3 tablets per liter are added to it, and then it is allowed to stand for 15-30 minutes.
Pills of monosodium salt of dichloroisocyanuric acid have good effectiveness. In the absence of tablets, you can use tincture of iodine (8 10 drops per 1 liter of water). However, the most reliable way to neutralize boiling water. The creation of water reserves during transitions is advisable only in conditions when the water sources are located at a great distance from each other and water supply is difficult. But since in hot tropical climates during storage the water quickly changes its taste, blooms, it should be boiled during the break.
Storage and transportation of water in emergency stock.
For storage and transportation of water in emergency stocks, various types of canister containers are used, made of non-oxidizable metal or special plastics. Before refueling, in order to ensure the safety of water for a long time, the container is treated with a disinfectant solution (for example, bleach), and then, thoroughly rinsed, filled with boiled water. Sometimes silver, kumazin, etc. are used to preserve water. For long-term storage, water is canned in sealed cans with a special coating. And French specialists made small sealed (150 ml) bags from a special grade of polyethylene.
For long-term storage of water, metal silver is sometimes used. At the end of the XIX century. The German botanist Negeli noted that pieces of silver, lowered into a vessel with water, have a detrimental effect on living things in it. Negeli suggested that the smallest particles of silver split off from the surface of the metal produce this effect. With the advent of electron microscopy, it turned out to be easy to establish that silver ions are absorbed by cells and, having settled on their membranes, disrupt the vital activity of microorganisms, resulting in their death. The antimicrobial effect of silver is 1750 times stronger than the action of carbolic acid, 3.5 times mercuric chloride. It is believed that the antimicrobial effect of silver is even higher than that of many antibiotics, not to mention the fact that silver easily copes with antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
Thus, measures for water supply and water consumption in conditions of autonomous existence can be reduced to several basic provisions.
1. The search for water, especially in desert conditions, should be one of the highest priorities.
2. If there is a source of water, drink water without restrictions, and in hot climates a little more than is required to satisfy thirst.
3. With limited water supplies, establish, based on the circumstances, a rigid daily water rate. Reduce as much as possible the amount of food consumed, especially causing thirst (canned food, corned beef, etc.).
4. To clean and disinfect water extracted from stagnant and low-flowing bodies of water.
5. Build a shelter (awning, canopy, etc.) from direct solar radiation and determine such a mode of activity. Time to complete camp work, march, etc., which would ensure minimal heat loads.
Based on materials from the book Man in extreme environmental conditions.