About fifteen years ago, this article would have seemed absurd to any person. What kind of survival are we talking about? The main products in the shops are, water, gas, electricity enter the apartment, there is enough heat. What else do you need? And today, in most regions of Russia, residents will think the same.
Ways to save heat in houses and apartments in the absence of heating and power outages, energy disaster.
But not at all. This is the difference between that time and the present. The population of Transnistria, Tajikistan, Chechnya, Karabakh, Abkhazia, Dagestan experienced for themselves that there is survival in a social catastrophe in practice. A war swept through these territories. But not only military operations can cause a sharp destabilization of life. Entire regions of the former Union, entire republics, and now independent states have learned what the heat and energy crisis is..
come later. The first suffering, the first death brings cold. Modern concrete, cinder blocks, and similar multi-storey buildings do not hold heat well and, even with a decrease in a few percent of the heat supply, they stand up very quickly. How to survive in a house with a cut-off umbilical cord for heating, how to save your family from Santa Claus who has ceased to be kind? To begin, let us dwell on the methods of passive thermal protection with the conservation of the heat that is available.
Conservation of heat in a house or apartment when the heating is turned off.
Unfortunately, we were not accustomed to retain heat, as well as water and electricity. If in most developed capitalist countries meters are installed on batteries and water taps, then our water and heat were always not measured. Such abundance corrupts. Therefore, we are much less than a wealthy capitalist ready for thermal survival. The fact that for us emergency water does not whip from the tap with a full stream for him is the norm of life. There, cranes do not open at full capacity. There, arrival in the water bath is directly proportional to the decrease in money from the wallet.
Westerners have long been taught to count heat calories using counters and fines for excessive heat leakage from apartments. To the extent that inspectors in power walk along the streets with special thermal imagers, making heat maps of residential buildings, and catch and fine calorie wasters. And the temperature there in the houses is at least a few degrees lower than in our homes. Because the coolness in the house is cheaper. We often have to study the science of heat conservation already in conditions close to military ones. According to a proverb: the thunder struck, we begin to baptize earnestly, but before we somehow forgot.
With the threat of cold accidents, the first thing you should do is check your apartment for heat leakage. Inspectors do not go with thermal imagers, so we’ll have to do it on our own. The front door has slits with a finger? Fill the space between the jamb and the door with some kind of sealant, in extreme cases, rags twisted into the roller. Better yet, cover the outside of the door with a piece of felt or other similar insulation material. In conditions close to emergency, hang the doorway from the inside with a blanket hanging freely from the ceiling to the floor.
Let’s go to the windows. Again let thin, but slots through which cold air penetrates inside. Walk along the frames with a lighted candle or a thin feather and use them to find through holes that are cold-creeping. Close them up in any way possible: seal with paper, hammer with foam rubber, rags, fill with paint, coat with putty, plasticine and so on. Be sure to close both frames, and it would be nice from both sides, both inside and out. The space between the frames can, like our grandmothers did, lay out with cotton wool or unnecessary rags. As a last resort, crumpled newspapers. This will also save you several tens of calories of heat..
In general, the struggle for heat in an apartment with disconnected heat sinks consists precisely of such trifles aimed at saving tenths and hundredths of a degree. Of these, a concept such as thermal comfort is summed up. Solving the heat problem at once, without such painstaking and seemingly ineffective actions, is possible only with the help of very costly methods. Well, plugged the cracks in the windows? Already better. Count a couple degrees won.
In the event of a catastrophic cold snap, you can recommend filling the space between the frames from the bottom to the top with blankets, pillows and unnecessary warm clothes. Just do not stuff the insulation tightly, this makes it less cold-resistant. A more primitive way to hang a spread blanket between the frames. When more light is needed, it can be raised or shifted to the side. Let’s move on. Curtains. From the point of view of survival, they should be as dense as possible, always from floor to ceiling, preferably in light colors and always curtained around the clock.
Stutter? And, of course, wrong. Do not jerk them the way you used to do it in ordinary life. Do not cover the central heating batteries with them if they are even a little warm. In extreme conditions, warmth is more important to you than aesthetics. Fill the curtains with batteries so that they do not retain heat, but, on the contrary, reflect it into the room. Wipe the batteries themselves with a rag to remove dust from them. Dust also inhibits the heat transfer of radiators. Or, more radically, try to upgrade central heating batteries.
Place a metal sheet between them and the wall, which will serve as a screen reflecting heat inside the room and at the same time heat itself and heat the surrounding air. If there is no metal, replace it with a sheet of cardboard, painted with silver paint or glued with foil (see. Figure). Hang additional metal, ribbed, or figured enclosures on the batteries to increase surface area. Try to maximize the heat transfer area.
So you at the same temperature of the batteries significantly increase their efficiency. Make not one, but two casing hanging on top of each other, but be sure to leave a distance between them and fill more holes for the outflow of warm air. As improvised quick-detachable heat accumulators, you can use long strips of metal or tubes stuck in the battery from the end, cans hung from all sides. Their effectiveness, of course, is lower, but still better than nothing.
Which metal should be used? Depending on what effect you are achieving. If the battery heats weakly, but it is always preferable to aluminum alloys that quickly heat up and just as quickly give off heat. If the batteries are turned on once a day and for a short time, it is better to use massive iron, which will heat up longer, but also cool for a long time, maintaining the temperature in the room. And by the way, knock off the paint from the batteries, it is also a heat insulator. Beautifully colored batteries are good under normal conditions, not emergency.
Is it cool anyway? Have you closed the ventilation? Not? Do you know that, according to sanitary standards, through these decorative grilles under the ceiling, the entire volume of air in the room should be updated every hour? And with the air, naturally, heat also leaves. Close up the ventilation holes and you will guess a few more degrees. Yes, do not be afraid you suffocate, the apartment is not a submarine, where air cannot penetrate, there are cracks.
For more reassurance, I can say that thermos houses are being built in northern Canada, where during severe frosts only one tenth of the volume of air per hour is allowed to be exchanged. And no one complains about choking. Is it cold anyway? Then do as the blockers of Leningrad did, get your whole family together in one room in which you try to achieve thermal comfort. A person, after all, is also a small stove, and the more you cram in the confined space of a room, the closer it is, the warmer it will be. As they say, in cramped, but not insulted.
In winter, in forty-degree frost, stacking in stacks of super-cramped snow caves, we were convinced of this. It happens that it is impossible to turn on the other side so as not to disturb the whole row, you have to breathe through once, that is, even, then odd, but no frost is terrible. Rather, thermal shocks for those in the center. It is better not to choose the largest dormitory room (the rule of winter survival is the smaller the amount of snow-covered shelter, the warmer it is for an apartment), with a minimum number and area of windows and walls facing the street. The least convenient in this regard are the corner apartments, which have two street walls, and the apartments of the last floor in contact with the roof.
Yes, and do not forget to blanket the door leading to the room. You should also sleep in emergency mode not one by one, each under his own blanket, but together, and under a single one, sewn from separate pieces. Do not get warm? Then it remains to smash, inside the room an impromptu, sewn from carpets, blankets and covered the tent-tent. And live there, as in the Chukchi plague. Or insulate a dull, windowless bathroom.
So to speak, create a thermal thermos inside the apartment, for which hang blankets on all walls, doors, ideally a ceiling, and rags on the floor. But this is already in really extreme conditions, when an overabundance of dust and stale air are no longer frightening, and there are no options to warm the internal atmosphere. Honestly, in peacetime it is difficult to imagine such a situation. You need to be completely devoid of imagination and initiative if you cannot find a way to provide an additional source of heat.
In the event of a sharp cooling and weak heating of the central heating batteries.
Audit the apartment in order to detect heat leakage paths.
Close up the cracks in the front door. Cover the door with insulating material. Cloth the doorway from floor to ceiling with a cloth.
Seal (plug, seal, cover) the gaps in the windows inside and out. Lay space between frames with rags or newspapers.
In extreme cold, hang a spread blanket between the frames..
Use curtains made of the most dense material..
Refill curtains with batteries.
Close ventilation vents.
Wipe off dust from batteries and remove paint; they absorb heat.
Between the battery and the wall put a sheet of iron or cardboard glued with foil. It will reflect heat inside the room..
Hang an additional metal casing on the battery or insert metal pipes into the end openings to increase the heat transfer area.
In a severe cold, the whole family lives in one room, a small cubic capacity, with a small number of windows.
Sleeping together under one blanket made of several. So much warmer.
In the event of a sharp cooling and weak heating of the central heating batteries,.
Cover the batteries with curtains, as they will not let heat into the room.
Based on materials from the School of Survival during the Economic Crisis.