Often, as a result of a traffic accident, the victim has damage to the vessels that cause bleeding. It is very important to be able to distinguish between types of bleeding in order to stop them. So, there are bleeding.
Capillary. A slight release of blood over the entire surface of the damaged tissue, observed with shallow cuts of the skin, abrasions, stops on its own for 10 minutes.
Venous. Blood of a dark red or brown color (due to a small amount of oxygen) flows continuously from the wound; depending on the caliber of the damaged vein, it can be either insignificant or intense (bearing a direct threat to human life).
Arterial. The most dangerous thing is that a blood stream beats with a fountain or pulsates at the site of damage, the blood is bright red, red (due to the high concentration of oxygen), does not stop on its own, leading to significant blood loss for a short time.
Ways to stop arterial, venous, capillary bleeding, correct application of a tourniquet, actions for injuries in an accident.
Bleeding due to skin damage is called external, and internal in the body cavity. Mixed bleeding is a combined damage to various vessels, i.e., external and internal.
. The main tasks of a temporary stop are the prevention of life-threatening blood loss, gaining time for transporting the victim and preparing him for surgery. It is carried out in different ways, depending on the type of bleeding..
Ways to temporarily stop bleeding.
Raising an injured limb up (venous and capillary bleeding).
A compressive dressing (venous bleeding).
Pressing an artery with a finger above the site of injury (arterial bleeding).
A tourniquet or twist (arterial bleeding).
Maximum flexion in the joints (with venous bleeding at the site of joint flexion, additional pressing at a distance with arterial bleeding).
A dangerous loss of blood in a person from 750 ml to 1.5 liters and above, with such a loss, death may occur due to oxygen starvation of body tissues, especially the brain and heart muscle. Therefore, when providing medical care, you need to learn the basic rules for stopping bleeding. The fastest way to stop bleeding is by pressing a finger on a blood vessel, i.e. by exerting direct pressure on the wound.
After that, it is necessary to apply a sterile napkin, pressing, tight bandage, and if necessary a tourniquet (where possible). In case of injuries with damage to the carotid artery, a tight bandage is applied, a tight roller from gauze and gauze should be placed under it. All procedures must be performed with rubber gloves.!
Stop arterial bleeding to the victim of an accident.
The most effective way to completely stop arterial bleeding is to apply a rubber band. It is used in case of ineffective pressure dressing and pressing the artery above the site of damage. It is imposed above the site of injury, but not far from the wound itself and must be on clothing or on a layer of bandage or napkins. This is necessary in order not to accidentally damage soft tissues. In this case, the force of clamping the tourniquet should be such as to stop bleeding, but not to injure the nerve endings of the limbs, as a result of which the puff is stopped as soon as the bleeding in the wound has stopped.
The correct application of a tourniquet to the victim of an accident.
Location of the tourniquet wrap the tourniquet around a damaged limb. Position the tape at least 3 cm above the wound site and not directly above it!
Fastening and tightening, pull the harness onto the fasteners and securely fasten the tape with the movement backward from you. Tighten the tourniquet until the bleeding stops and connect it with a clip.
Fixing the time, write down the time of applying the tourniquet on special paper and place under it. Notify the ambulance staff about this..
The maximum time for applying the tourniquet is 2 hours, because without blood circulation the cells die quickly. Given this, under the tourniquet you need to put a note in which to indicate the time of its application. If the victim for some reason was not taken to the hospital for 1.5 hours, then in order to avoid tissue necrosis, it is necessary to loosen the tourniquet by 5 minutes, while firmly squeezing the wound site with your hand. Next, you should again fix the tourniquet, but already above the previous place, again making an appropriate note in the note.
In the absence of a tourniquet, it is allowed to use twists from a rope, belt or twisted napkin, but such means are less elastic and lead to additional injury faster. Another way to stop arterial bleeding is to maximize flexion of the limb in the joint. At the same time, it is fixed in a position in which the smallest blood leakage occurs.
Stopping venous and capillary bleeding for a victim of an accident.
Venous and capillary bleeding is stopped with tight dressings. First of all, lift the wounded area so that blood flows from the damaged area. Then apply a pressure bandage just below the wound, because the venous blood flows to the heart from the peripheral vessels. It is better to use an individual dressing bag. And if it’s not at hand, apply several layers of sterile gauze, bandage or gauze to the wound. Put a handkerchief on them..
To strengthen the bandage, do a few rounds (turns) with a bandage. Tighten the pressure bandage very tight to the site of damage. Each new tour is superimposed so that the previous one is 50-70% closed. Thus, you squeeze the gaps of the damaged vessels and stop the bleeding. If the blood stopped flowing, and the pulsation below the bandage remained correctly applied. But if it is again saturated with blood, then on top of it, put a few more layers of gauze (napkins, bandage) and again tightly bandage.
Never pull out an object that pierced the victim’s body on your own; its movement can cause additional damage and bleeding..
Keep the victim from movement. If the wound bleeds to squeeze it and stop the bleeding, apply a sterile dressing around the item. Gaskets further stabilize the item.
If necessary, hold the person so as to minimize pressure on the subject. Constantly monitor the injured and the wound until the arrival of doctors.
Based on the materials of the SAI Ukrainian Medical Center for Road Safety.