Most often, people find themselves on ice, crossing bodies of water in order to shorten their path. Or going on a winter fishing trip. In stable frosty weather, when the temperature does not rise more than minus five degrees, ice with a thickness of four to five centimeters is considered safe for the movement of a single pedestrian. Eight-centimeter ice can withstand two people standing nearby, 12-14 centimeters, 5-7 people. Autumn ice is safe for one person with a thickness of at least 10 centimeters.
What kind of ice is dangerous, winter fishing and ice behavior, what to do if you fell under the ice, salvation from wormwood.
The most durable transparent ice with a bluish or greenish tint, without air bubbles, formed in frosty, calm and without rainfall. During a thaw, hoarfrost, rain, ice becomes more white and dull, sometimes acquiring a yellowish tint. Such ice is very unreliable. Unless absolutely necessary, you should not go on spring, porous ice.
it must be borne in mind that in its structure it is heterogeneous somewhere stronger, somewhere weaker. For example, on fast rivers in places of narrowing, on steep banks, ice often consists of several thin crusts separated by layers of air. Near the coast, such air bubbles can reach significant sizes, sometimes more than a meter.
In cold weather, wormwood, hidden under the snow, can sometimes be recognized by its characteristic soaring. A dark spot on a flat snow cover may mean that in this place the ice is thinner than around. In the bends of the rivers, try to stay as far away as possible from the cliffs. There, the flow is fast, hectic, the ice is thinner and freezes unevenly. In spring, it is most dangerous in areas densely overgrown with sedge, near flooded bushes. You should go ashore and especially go down to the river in places not covered by snow.
Otherwise, slipping and rolling on a slope, you can even fall into visible wormwood, as it can be very difficult to brake gliding on ice. When choosing a path, never plow the virgin lands, do not look for new paths, follow the paths and paths trodden up to you. People know better where to go safer. And most importantly, the ice is thicker on the trails, since in this place it was constantly growing, tamping the snow. It is best to move along a rut broken by a recent car. If the ice has withstood several automobile tons, then your tens of kilograms are somehow.
On ice, the strength of which is doubtful, you should go one by one, keeping the interval between people at least five meters. The first, light, probing and tapping the ice with a stick, should go the most experienced man. It is advisable to insure him with a long rope tied around his chest. If you have behind your back, one strap should be removed to be able to instantly get rid of it. Or drag a few meters behind you on a rope. The ski bindings need to be unfastened, and hands should be pulled out of the hinges of ski poles. It will be useful to put heavy objects from your pockets into a bag so that when you fail, they do not pull you down.
You should walk on the ice carefully, with a sliding step, gently putting your foot on the whole foot. Practice shows that ice rarely breaks instantly. Typically, a crack is preceded by a crack, subsidence of ice, a change in its appearance, water may come out. With a characteristic crack or subsidence of ice, it is better to immediately go back. Returning in such cases is permissible only in their own tracks, without taking their feet off the surface of the ice. This is the safest way..
What to do if you fell through the ice, salvation from the wormwood.
When breaking ice, you need to quickly get rid of the bags, lie on your stomach, arms spread wide, and try to crawl out of the danger zone. You need to move only to the side where you came from. If a person is in the water, he must get rid of all the heavy things and, staying on the surface, try to crawl out onto hard ice. The easiest way to do this is by sticking a penknife, sharp key, etc. into the ice. Ideally, you should have some sharp object on hand when crossing the winter pond..
It is necessary to get out of the narrow wormwood, rolling from the stomach to the back and at the same time crawling out onto the ice. In great wormwood, climbing on the ice is necessary in the place where the fall occurred. In rivers with a strong current, you should try to avoid the bulk side (where the water goes), so as not to be drawn into the ice. No matter how difficult it is to get out of the wormwood against the current, this should be done there or from the side. If the ice is weak, it must be crushed until a hard area is found..
The most important thing is when you have failed in the wormwood to keep calm and calm. Even a poorly swimming person can stay on the surface for some (sometimes quite long) time due to the air cushion formed under clothing. And only when the clothes get wet a person loses additional buoyancy. This time is usually enough to get out of the wormwood..
It should be remembered that the first minutes in cold water are most productive, until the clothes are wet, hands are not frozen, weakness and indifference characteristic of hypothermia have not developed. To assist a failed person should only one, in extreme cases, two of his comrades. It is not only useless to everyone, but also dangerous to pile up on the edge of wormwood.
The person assisting should lie on his stomach, crawl to the hole in the ice and give the victim the end of the rope, a long stick, a belt, knitted scarves, jackets, etc. In the absence of any means of salvation, it is permissible for several people to lie down in a chain, holding each other by the legs, and so, crawling, moving to the wormwood, help the victim. In all cases, when approaching the edge of the wormwood, you should try to cover as much ice as possible, with your arms and legs apart, and in no case create point loads, resting on it with your elbows or knees.
When a lifeguard acts alone, then it is more expedient to approach a failed person with his feet, sticking sharp objects into the ice surface. If you pull your hands to the victim, then he can steal for them an unsupported lifeguard into the water. After the victim grabs the leg or the rope submitted to him, one must crawl away from the wormwood, relying on improvised ice axes. If there is a long rope, it is better to tie it in advance to a tree standing on the shore and, having thus secured a guaranteed support, crawl to the wormwood.
A person who is pulled out of the water should be immediately changed into dry clothes and shoes, given something sweet to eat and made to move actively until he is finally warm. Help to a person who has fallen into water must be provided very quickly, since even a 10-15 minute stay in ice water can be life threatening.
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.