Any situation arising in human life is considered by psychologists as a complex subjective-objective reality. In science, there are many classifications of situations. Some consider it simple, difficult or extreme. Others are divided into neutral and conflict. Still others are everyday and problematic. Fourth on situations of physical danger and situations of suspense. Fifths on freely chosen and imposed.
What makes the situation extreme, general signs of an extreme situation, human behavior in an extreme situation.
But if you try to summarize all these approaches, you can distinguish four main types of situations:
1. Simple and everyday, in which everything is normal and normal for a person.
2. Tense and dangerous.
3. Complex and emergency.
4. Extreme, in which the requirements for personality go beyond the norm.
The difference between an extreme situation and a simple, tense and complex one is that an extreme situation is a direct interaction of a person with an extremely complicated situation.
Common signs of an emergency.
1. The presence of insurmountable difficulties, awareness of a threat or insurmountable obstacle to the realization of any specific goals.
2. The state of mental tension and various reactions of a person to the extremeness of the environment, the overcoming of which is of great importance for him.
3. A significant change in the usual (habitual, sometimes even tense or complex) situation, parameters of activity or behavior, that is, going beyond the usual.
Thus, one of the main signs of an extreme situation is insurmountable obstacles to implementation, which can be considered as a direct threat to the realization of a goal or a planned action.
situation. They require a person to mobilize mental and physical resources. A person in an extreme situation receives information about its various elements:
about external conditions;
about their internal states;
about the results of their own actions.
The processing of this information is carried out through cognitive and emotional processes. The results of this treatment affect the behavior of an individual in an extreme situation. Threat signals lead to an increase in human activity. And if this activity does not bring the expected improvement, the person is overwhelmed with negative emotions of different strengths. The role of emotions in an extreme situation is different.
Emotions can act both as an indicator of extremeness and as an assessment of a situation, and as a factor leading to a change in behavior in a situation. And at the same time, it must be remembered that emotional experiences are one of the important factors in a person’s behavior in an extreme situation. As a rule, an extreme situation is generated by objective reasons, but its extremeness is largely determined by subjective components. So :
There may not be an objective threat, but a person or a group of people mistakenly perceive the current situation as extreme. Most often this happens due to unpreparedness or distorted perception of the surrounding reality. However, real objective threat factors may exist, but the person does not know about their existence and is not aware of the emergency situation that has arisen..
A person can recognize the extreme situation, but evaluate it as not significant, which in itself is already a tragic mistake, which can lead to unpredictable consequences.
Finding himself in an extreme situation and finding no way out of this situation, having lost faith in the possibility of resolving it, he evades reality by activating psychological defense mechanisms..
The situation may be objectively extreme, but the availability of knowledge and experience allows it to be overcome without significant mobilization of its resources..
Thus, a person reacts to an extreme situation depending on how he perceives it and evaluates its value. There is another specific reaction of a person to an extreme situation, mental tension. This is the mental state of a person in an extreme situation, with the help of which a person is as if prepared for the transition from one psychophysical state to another, adequate to the current situation.
Forms of tension.
perceptual, arising from difficulties in perception;
intellectual, when a person finds it difficult to solve a problem;
emotional, when emotions arise that disorganize behavior and activity;
strong-willed, when a person cannot control himself;
motivational, related to the struggle of motives, various points of view.
Mental tension is characterized by an increased level of activity and significant waste of neuropsychic energy. The levels of mental tension in different people can be different, which is associated primarily with the mental stability of a person.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.