Deciduous forests can consist of a single species of deciduous trees – birch groves, aspen, oak groves – and a mixture of species. For homogeneous deciduous forests, species of mushrooms are characteristic, living in symbiosis with this species of tree.
What mushrooms grow in deciduous forests and in open places, edible, conditionally edible and poisonous mushrooms.
Birch forests are rich in various mushrooms. Here, birch trees abundantly grow, preferring bright places on the edges, clearings, along roads, on hills with sparse trees. Marsh boletus grows in mossy lowlands and on sphagnum bogs covered with birch, along with russula. In bright and dry birch groves, a white load is often found, usually growing in groups forming wide arcs – parts of huge “witch circles”.
Here you can find many varieties of russula – blue-yellow, greenish, food, beautiful, fragile. As well as a pink and white frogfish, mushrooms, umbrellas, various types of breasts, rows and talkers. In summer, in wet young birch forests, on birch stumps, a summer mushroom grows, and in autumn – a real autumn mushroom.
In light, thinned birch forests, a birch variety of porcini mushroom is found – a large, dense, beautiful mushroom with a brownish hat. Chaga grows on a live birch, which has long been used in folk medicine against liver diseases, various inflammations of the stomach and intestines.
In birch forests with fertile soil, valuy grow plentifully. On the outskirts of bogs overgrown with swamps, floats are found. They can be distinguished from fly agaric by the absence of a ring on the leg. Of the poisonous mushrooms in birch forests, Amanita muscaria is numerous and Amanita panther, Pale grebe is often found.
What mushrooms grow in deciduous oak forests.
In oak forests grows:
Flywheels green and fissured.
Some varieties of russula.
The oak variety of the white mushroom is found in glades and edges of oak forests, usually in old park-type forests. From lamellar mushrooms here you can find a dark brown lactarius, oak lump, as well as pepper lump, growing in large clusters even in very shaded places.
In the fall, at the base of trunks or on trunks of old oaks, a liverwort grows. Fleshy oval mushroom, reaching several kilograms. On the roots of old oaks, a tinder fungus leafy or ram mushroom grows, from afar similar to a lying sheep. At a young age, this fungus is edible. Of the poisonous mushrooms for oak forests, the false-foam brick-red, which inhabits oak stumps, is typical..
What mushrooms grow in deciduous aspen forests.
Pure aspen trees are usually poor in mushrooms, but they also have their own characteristic species, such as boletus and aspen mush. Here you can find russula blue-yellow. Sometimes in large quantities and russula nondescript. Aspen stumps in the clearings – a favorite place for the settlement of oyster mushrooms in autumn, openwork of autumn and winter.
What mushrooms grow in mixed deciduous forests.
In mixed deciduous forests, many species of mushrooms grow. In deciduous forests are found:
Different types of oyster mushrooms, polypore and mushrooms.
Semi-white and chestnut mushrooms.
Small-leaved forests abound:
Various milk dogs, among which there is a real, yellow, black, blue, lump, valui, violin and many other mushrooms.
However, mixed deciduous coniferous forests are especially rich in a variety of mushrooms. Depending on the composition of tree and shrub species, here you can find any mushrooms growing in symbiosis with them. For the composition of mushrooms, the main tree species, as well as the age, density and humidity of the forest, are of primary importance.
In moist forests with a predominance of birch and aspen, mixed with spruce can be expected:
On the clearings grow mushrooms and oyster mushrooms.
In light, grassy, moderately moist birch-aspen forests with fertile soil, valuy and russula grow well. And in the dry pine-birch forests, on the small hills, white, butterflies, boletus, small milk flies, russula, greenfinch and ear-wax grow.
In the spring, in such forests, in light, thinned places, especially in old conflagrations, morels and morels appear. In moist, swampy pine-birch forests, on bilberries, on sphagnum bogs, mossy bogs, goats, marsh birch barks, oily and russula, floats and wet mushrooms grow.
Features of picking mushrooms in deciduous forests.
To successfully collect mushrooms, you need to choose the right forest. In the dry season, for example, it would be better to go picking mushrooms in a humid forest. And in very wet seasons, on the contrary, it is better to prefer high places.
Old, dense, gloomy forests are usually poor in mushrooms, both in composition and quantity, and in a young birch forest, barely overgrown with shrubs, there can be many different mushrooms. In forests with tall, dense grass, mushrooms are usually few. Therefore, you need to choose such places so that there is little grass and forest litter can be seen through it..
A beginner mushroom picker should remember that most mushrooms prefer forest edges, clearings, thinned places warmed by the sun, and only very few mushrooms, such as mushrooms or oak trees, climb into the thicket and on the slopes of ravines. An inexperienced mushroom picker can pick up a basket of a wide variety of mushrooms without going far into the forest. But you need to know them well to be at the right time in the right place and get out of the forest with a basket full of porcini mushrooms, saffron mushrooms or mushrooms.
What mushrooms grow in open places.
Mushrooms grow not only in forests, but also in meadows, fields, pastures, in humus-rich places near housing. Compared to forests, the variety of mushrooms is small. Although the harvest of certain species is very plentiful. Of the mushrooms growing in open places, the most famous are champignons. They can often be found in humus heaps, in vegetable gardens, near stables, and in grazing areas..
Champignons prefer fertile soil, appear after rains in summer and autumn. Several types of champignons are known:
When collecting them, you need to be careful, because they can be easily confused not only with pale grebe, but also with poisonous champignons – yellow-skinned and pseudo-meadow.
Less well-known spherical mushrooms – golovachi, raincoats and flirts. On pastures, a golovach and a pearl raincoat are often found. At the forest edges, clearings you can meet a giant raincoat. Its fruiting bodies can reach a weight of 20 kilograms or more. Young raincoats have tender and tasty flesh suitable for frying and drying..
In well-manicured areas of meadows, vegetable gardens, parks and gardens, dung beetles grow white and gray. Both species are edible, but remember that dung beetles are known as anti-alcohol mushrooms. They cause vomiting when consumed with alcohol. Dungweed grows very quickly, in two days the mushroom grows, ages and dies. Therefore, they must be collected young and processed no later than 3 to 4 hours after collection.
In forest glades, in meadow grass near the edges, in old parks, on pastures, a white mushroom or field mushroom is found. It is edible by the young, until the hat has turned around and looks like an egg.
Almost everywhere spread meadow honey agaric. A small but very tasty fungus forming “witch circles” in the meadows, which can be seen from afar along the rings of greener grass. In our country it is little known, but very much appreciated in European countries..
Based on materials from the book Mushrooms. We collect, grow, harvest.
Zvonarev N. M.