Going to winter fishing, it should be remembered that there is always a risk of falling through the ice. The safe thickness of ice cover in steady frosty weather is 4-5 cm for one person, provided that the air temperature does not rise above 5 degrees. If it is closer to spring or late fall, the safe layer of ice is at least 10 cm to support the weight of one person. The strongest ice can be recognized by a bluish or greenish hue, without air bubbles, and its formation occurred in a frosty, windless, steady weather. The remaining external signs will indicate the unreliability of the ice layer, which may fall under the weight of a person. To help yourself, if there is no one around, or to save another person, you need to know what to do if you fell through the ice.
- Precautionary measures
- 2What to do if you fell through the ice: rules
- 3 Assistance to those who fell through the ice.
- 4Video Instructions, what to do when you fell through the ice
In order not to fall under the water, you should adhere to the following rules of stay on ice:
- Do not step on the white, yellowish color. Most often, people fall through the frosted white ice, which is more dangerous than transparent ice. The most dangerous is the latent autumn and spring ice, which consists of snow frozen during a blizzard.
- If cracks are formed under your feet, you cannot continue to follow in the same direction, especially if annular cracks form.
- It is necessary to avoid passing on the ice near steep banks, reed beds, under snow drifts, in places with fallen trees and stones frozen into the icy stratum, and other objects, as well as in places where the water is uneasy. In addition, you should avoid places of flow of industrial water into the reservoir.
- In order not to please in the polynya under the snow, in cold weather it can be recognized by the characteristic soaring. If there is a dark spot on the snow cover, it means that the ice layer at this point is the thinnest.
- If a human trail is laid on the ice or there are traces of car tires, it is best to move along them, because the ice is thicker on the trails, it is rammed with snow under the weight of people or cars passing by.
- Moving along the icy surface of the reservoir, you always need to have some sharp object at hand, and if there is a backpack behind your back, you need to remove one strap in order to quickly throw it off.
What to do if you fell through the ice: the rules
If it happened that you fell through the ice, you need to follow the recommendations:
- First of all, it is necessary to maintain self-control, not to panic and not to take rash actions.
- Get rid of bags, heavy things in your pockets as quickly as possible. It is necessary to seize the moment while the clothes are dry – it will allow some time to keep buoyancy and hold out on the water.
- Lie on the stomach and widely spread his arms to the side. The position should be as horizontal as possible.
- Carefully begin to crawl out of the zone of falling ice, moving in the direction from which you came.
- You must try to get to the area with strong ice, sticking a penknife or other sharp object into it.
- It is good if there are two objects with you that can be used as a support, for example, two large nails. Having caught them as far as possible beyond the openings, it is necessary to begin to work frequently with their feet, and, alternately placing their hands with supports, try to pull themselves onto a stable ice surface. You should not work too actively with your feet, because in case of failure (ice breaks off, wet clothes pull down and so on) precious forces will be lost.
- When you manage to crawl out onto a stable ice surface, you should crawl, not getting up on your feet, another ten meters, then return to the coast in frequent steps to follow your own tracks.
Helping the fallen under the ice
What to do if a person falls through the ice and needs help? Subject to the presence of warm dry clothing, a person can hold out in the water for about 50 minutes, but the first signs of frostbite hands will begin to appear after 20-30 minutes. Therefore, assistance to a failed person under the ice should be provided as quickly as possible.
If the first-aid group consists of three people, its actions should be as follows:
- The person walking first in the group should be tied with a rope, at one end of which there should be a loop to clasp the victim for the armpits, the other end should be given to the person following him.
- Approximately 25 meters from the edge of the polynya, the first person should lie down on the snow and move in the belligerent way towards the victim. When the distance is optimal, two or three notches are made on the ice for support by arms and legs, a rope is thrown to assist the one who fell through the ice.
- The second and third rescuers begin to pull the rope along with the first and injured.
If the assistance is produced by one person, he must act more carefully.
It is better to head to the victim on his own trail, 25 meters from him, lie down on the ice and crawl another 10 or 15 meters. Here you need to punch 3-4 supports for arms and legs, then throw the rope. After that, a person is pulled out of the water and first aid is provided, if necessary. Sometimes it happens that the rescuer finds himself in such a situation, falling through the ice. At the same time, it is necessary to get close to the victim, hand over sharp objects to support him, so that he clings to the ice, and push him to the surface. After that, the victim crawls to a safe distance for him and helps his rescuer to crawl out. First aid to the victim is provided through the use of artificial respiration and warming.