What to do in the first minutes and hours of an extreme or emergency.

Each extreme situation has its own characteristics and differences. But there is a general pattern of behavior, which to a greater or lesser extent can be applied in any climatic and geographical zone and in any extreme or emergency situation.. 

What to do in the first minutes and hours of an extreme or emergency.

One of the main rules for a person who finds himself in an extreme or emergency situation is: always consider yourself closer to danger. This means that in any place, in any situation, even when nothing seems to portend danger, it is necessary to observe not only safety measures, but also safety measures. Closely monitor changes in weather conditions, the possibility of attack by predatory animals. Do not leave unattended things and products remaining after the accident. Don’t scatter them.

The order of salvation depends directly on the state of the person at this particular moment. In case of urgent need to leave the danger zone, the possibility of a car or aircraft explosion, a sinking boat, a collapsing building, a flood zone or fire, not amenable to panic. Leaving the accident zone, you must first determine what else could be life threatening at the moment. Avalanche, rockfall, hypothermia or overheating of the body. Depending on imminent danger and necessary measures are taken.

temperatures all of the above actions are required. Even if at first you feel comfortable.

Heating open and blown body parts requires additional energy, and therefore additional consumption of food calories, which can not be lost in an extreme or emergency situation, since, by preserving the internal heat of the body, a person preserves and saves food supplies. The next stage is the construction in the immediate vicinity of the place of accident or catastrophe of a temporary shelter from direct solar radiation, wind, rain, snow or frost. In an emergency, hypothermia or overheating of the body can develop rapidly with a threatening increase.

And if you do not protect yourself in time from the effects of external adverse climatic conditions, then after 0.5-1 hours you will have to deal with the serious consequences of overheating or overcooling of the body. And this will not only require a lot of effort and precious time, but can lead to irreparable consequences. Such a shelter can be built from a piece of polyethylene or fabric, a parachute, fragments of a vehicle, an impromptu hut. But at the same time with its construction, it is necessary to begin the construction of a more capital shelter, which will be either temporary for several days or long. Depending on how quickly help can come.

Do not engage in secondary affairs until you are provided with temporary or capital shelter. Then, at the place of the tragedy, you need to search and collect all the items that may come in handy in the extreme situation in which you find yourself. Everything found must be put in one place and preferably on a platform cleared of snow, grass, sand, so as not to trample and lose. Cover with weather, wind, rain or snow with pieces of cloth or polyethylene, if any, with branches or bark of various trees, reeds and the like..

From unnecessary items, it is desirable to add tours in the form of various geometric shapes in an open space or just a place clearly visible from air and land. It is necessary to take into account all personal things and objects, even if in your opinion they do not represent any benefit, because:

In extreme conditions, binoculars, watches, lenses from glasses, camera lenses can be used as magnifying glasses for making fire.
Foil from sweets, chocolates and packages of certain types of products, for example, a staniol coating on the inside of milk, kefir and other dairy products, can be used to make a signal mirror, spinners, fry small game and fish.
Copper money, apartment and car keys, rings and cufflinks can also serve as fishing lures..

From rubber suspenders, volleyball and bicycle cameras, slingshots can be made for hunting small birds, reptiles and small rodents.
Needles are suitable not only for sewing and darning, but also for making the compass needle. Nails, pins, hairpins, earrings, badges can be adapted as fishing hooks.
Plastic bags, children’s balloons are perfect containers for carrying and storing water, extracting and desalinating water in the desert and the ocean, sealing things and warming your feet.
Nylon stockings, tights, fishing line, thick threads and threads drawn from clothes, waist belt cut into thin strips. All this can serve as material for the manufacture of hunting traps and loops, fishing rods, slings..

Any little thing, picked up at the scene of an accident or lying around in your pockets, in an extreme or emergency situation will sooner or later find its application. Therefore, nothing needs to be thrown away. All surviving products, even crumbs of crackers and seeds from pockets, are collected in one place and carefully taken into account. This is the so-called emergency stock. In the early days, under normal climatic conditions, you need to refrain from eating existing foods and try to take advantage of the gifts of nature.

But this depends not only on climatic conditions, but also on the time of year and location of the highlands, glacier, desert, devoid of vegetation, open water spaces. It is necessary to sort all products by expiration dates and only those that are perishable should be consumed first. And finally, the next task at the scene of the accident is to lay out distress signals.

Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.

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