Edible mushrooms are a great help on a hike. As you know, the chemical composition of edible mushrooms is more like meat than vegetable products. They surpass many vegetables in the content of phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur and compete favorably with fruits. They have vitamins A, B and PP. Extractives give the mushrooms a distinctive aroma and pleasant taste..
When and in which forests to collect edible mushrooms, some features of the preparation and harvesting of edible mushrooms.
Gathering edible mushrooms, the main thing is not to accidentally get on similar poisonous mushrooms, they are very dangerous. Not knowing what kind of mushroom it is, it is better not to take it. It is equally important to be able to cook mushrooms correctly. Some of them are white, boletus, boletus, boletus, mushrooms, as well as champignons, russula, chanterelles, mushrooms, can be cooked and fried without prior treatment.
, relatively few. These are mushrooms bearing the collective names of pale grebe (green, yellow and white), fly agaric (panther, red, porphyry and stinky), false openings (gray and brick red). In bright deciduous forests, often under beech trees, you can find a satanic mushroom. The hat is gray-whitish, convex, a tubular layer of greenish-yellow, with red pores. The pulp turns blue when cut, and then becomes pale, with a faint but unpleasant odor. He is very poisonous.
Severe poisoning, sometimes even fatal, causes a pale toadstool. It contains strong poisons that are not destroyed by boiling and frying. Most often, champignons are confused with it. Meanwhile, on her lower part of the leg there is always a small tuberous swelling, sheathed, in the form of a hem or collar. In the upper part of the leg is a membranous ring (white, greenish or pale yellow). The plates under the hat are white, unpainted. In mature champignon, these plates are dark, in a young, slightly pink color, but there are no rings, swelling on the leg and shell. True, tuberous formations are sometimes found in edible mushrooms. And although this is very rare, it’s better not to collect them.
When and in which forests to collect edible mushrooms.
They grow in families and not in thickets, but on glades and forest edges, in a rare young spruce forest, on moist soil, in green moss, in lingonberry places, as well as in old forests, spruce, pine, birch and oak. They appear around the end of June and often hold to the end of frost. The first white, the so-called spikelets, appear during the flowering of winter rye.
Brown boletus (common, pinkish and marsh).
They usually appear in mid-June and hold until the first frost. You need to look for them on the edges and glades in bright deciduous white-trunk forests, mainly birch.
Beautiful edible mushrooms with a solid meaty hat of red, orange and yellow. It occurs both in deciduous and coniferous forests, under birch, aspen, among spruce and pine trees, at the edges and glades. Preferred aspen environment. It is better to collect boletus with a bright red hat, since as they grow, the hat darkens and the mushrooms become less tasty.
They like glades and edges in coniferous forests, young pine trees. They appear after the waves in July, and in the wet summer at the end of June. The first wave of camelina coincides with the flowering of heather, the second more abundant begins in late August and lasts throughout September. These mushrooms are collected for pickles and pickles. Drying and frying them is not recommended..
Meet everywhere. Roast young russula is very tasty.
All other mushrooms, including ceps, are superior in nutritional value. They grow in groups, mainly near old stumps and tree roots, on felled, decayed trunks. Near a healthy tree you will rarely meet them. Honey mushrooms are harvested in August and September. They should not be confused with false honey mushrooms (they are smaller in size and do not have films on the legs; the hat is gray-yellow in color, reddish in the middle, plates greenish-gray). Openings can be boiled, salted, pickled, but they are fried most delicious.
Morels and stitches.
Appear at the end of April, as soon as the snow melts in pine and spruce forests, and more often in clearings, clearings, clearings and edges. At the end of May, they are already disappearing. The surface of the morel cap is dark brown, with large, slightly convex cells of irregular shape. The hat is oval, fused with a white leg. The pulp is also white, brittle with a pleasant mushroom smell. Inside the mushroom is hollow. These delicious aromatic mushrooms are not often harvested, for fear of confusing them with lines that contain poisonous gelwell acid..
However, the lines can also be eaten if you boil them for 15-20 minutes and drain the water, and then rinse thoroughly with cold water. Boil, fry them in the same way as all other mushrooms. Lines noticeably differ in appearance from morels. Their hat looks like a crumpled piece of brown velvet crumpled into a lump, thrown over a short full leg. They are also very tasty in all forms, including dried. But dried stitches can be consumed no earlier than a month after drying (during this period, the poison destroyed during drying is completely removed).
It is necessary to search mainly in a young pine forest, spruce forest, on lawns and hillocks. Unlike many other edible mushrooms, the peel of the cap is easy to separate. When cooking, frying it is removed, and when marinated, leave.
They grow in large groups among the young spruce and pine. Appear at the end of summer and grow until the first night frosts. It is not easy to search for them, as they are often hidden by fallen blackened leaves. The breasts are excellent salty. The violinist is similar to the loaves. If you hold a solid smooth object around the edge of the mushroom cap, you will hear a creak, for which the violinist got her name. The violinist’s plates are not frequent, thick, white milk, sharp, milky juice.
Valuable, tasty mushroom. It grows in forests, meadows and gardens, near housing, often in city parks, in yards and gardens. Champignon roast gourmet dish. Sauces are also made from them..
They pour it out amidst lush greenery in June and hold until September. In light, sparse birch forests and clearings grow until mid-October.
When he’s still a meatman, he’s also good for food.
Some features of the preparation and harvesting of edible mushrooms.
In dry summers, edible mushrooms must be sought in lower places. If summer and autumn are wet in higher places, where it is not very damp. In places where there are a lot of fly agaric, be careful not to miss the porcini mushrooms. And do not rush to leave, look around mushrooms grow families. The human body absorbs the proteins of mushrooms somewhat worse than the proteins of meat, fish, eggs. Therefore, you should boil them well and fry them, chopping as finely as possible. Not all parts of the fungus are equally nutritious. Hats have less mushroom fiber, so they are better digested. But for old mushrooms, it is recommended to cut off the lower tubular layer from the cap, where spores form.
Large, but strong boletus, boletus, boletus, and boletus are best dried, because when boiling, they boil, break up into separate threads, the marinade becomes cloudy, clogged. Fresh mushrooms can not be stored for more than 2-3 hours, and collected in wet weather even less. If it is not possible to cook them immediately after collection, then they are poured with cold salted water or laid out in a thin layer on paper, plywood and placed in the cold.
So that the edible mushrooms do not crumple in a bag or a rucksack, you need to insert a frame of willow twigs connected by twine. And the chanterelles are not afraid of any crowding. You can enjoy freshly picked mushrooms right in the forest. If there is a frying pan, a trench hearth is made in the ground and a fire is made. Having wound a piece of wire on a stick, you can fry kebab from mushrooms and on a fire. It will turn out especially tasty if you first dip each mushroom in vegetable oil.
Based on materials from the book In the forest and in the field at home. To help beginners.