Wild animals as food in conditions of survival, search for prey, traces and signs of feeding, excrement, dug land, smell and sounds, burrows and dens of animals.

All animals can be a source of nutrition. Some, including worms and insects, can be obtained without special skill, but the bulk must be obtained by traps or hunting, which requires knowledge of both animals and methods. 

Animals as food in conditions of survival, search for prey, signs and signs of feeding, excrement, dug land, smell and sounds, burrows and dens of animals.

The more you know about animals, the better, and general information on zoology and natural history should be used to expand your knowledge through observations in wildlife. There is no single recipe; trial and error is needed.

to put and coordinate their humane instincts with the rationality of survival. Best in terms of taste and quantity of meat, adult females. The younger the individual, the less fat the meat. The adult male is the fattest in the period immediately preceding the mating season (varies depending on the type of animal and climate).

During mating, the male becomes more and more lean, fat disappears, and even usually fat bone marrow suffers from this. Animals gather fat to winter well and lose it before the summer. The older the animal, the more fat it has and the tougher its meat.

Search for prey in terms of survival.

Most mammals move only at sunrise and sunset. Only the largest and most powerful animals go out during the day. Large herbivores require an entire day for the nutrition process to satisfy their nutritional needs. Some, very small, should eat so often that they are periodically active all day, but most mammals, such as rabbits, feed mainly at night and change their habits only if the weather goes bad.

Animals that feed on other animals go hunting during the activity of their prey. If you want to hunt them, you must also throw it down, but you can learn a lot without even meeting a single living specimen, and you can set traps and traps to catch animals when they appear.

Footprints and signs of wild animals..

Most animals are committed to their habits and use regular routes leading to their watering places and feeding places. Look for signs of such routes. Traces are most visible on wet soil, snow, and wet sand; other signs are more evident in dense vegetation. The size of the footprint is proportional to the animal itself. The freshness of the track can be determined quite accurately by its distinctiveness and moisture content. Did water leak into the trail, or did the last rain fill the imprint? How distinct is it? The clearer the tracks, the more likely they are fresh.

In the early morning, the tracks can be checked by looking at them at ground level. If dew and cobwebs are broken, then at the very least several hours. Some animals, such as rabbits, do not go far, so their tracks may indicate that they are somewhere nearby. Some animals make tunnels in dense thickets. Their height serves as a guide in relation to the size of the animal. Determine how fresh they are: did the torn leaves wilted, did the broken branches remain green? Marks on standing and fallen trees, signs of feeding, and food debris are often useful indicators. Excrement indicates the kind of animal that left them..

Signs of Feeding Wildlife.

The way that the bark of a tree is peeled, cracked nutshells, partially eaten fruits, bitten shoots and the remains of predators or the remains of a devastated nest are all signs of those animals that live or hunt in these places. Left fruit and nuts are often found where there is a lot of food, the animal finds something that he does not like, and throws it to choose another. This not only reveals the presence of the animal, but also suggests a possible bait for the trap..

An experienced eye can often determine the appearance of an animal by following the marks of its teeth or beak on a nut or by peeling cones to get to the seeds. The bark, shoots and buds, especially on young trees and shrubs, are an important part of the diet of many animals, including some species of deer, goats, hares, squirrels and many other rodents. In most cases, marks from animal teeth are clearly visible on tree bark.

Many deer bite shoots, leaving torn, frayed ends. The bark, stripped with long rags to the very wood around the whole tree, is another sign of a deer when it feeds in the summer. In winter, the bark is attached more firmly and is eaten in pieces, so that usually only sections on one side of the trunk are eaten and tooth marks are clearly visible. In addition, deer also rub against the tree with their horns to remove the soft top layer, as well as to mark their territory. Leaving scuffs on the bark and long scratches on the wood from the tips of the horns.

Sheep and goats also peel the bark from the trees. Traces of their teeth, as a rule, go obliquely, and in deer vertically. The bark, peeled below, usually indicates rodents, and peeled roots are likely to indicate animals like voles. Spiky-top stumps, as if cut down by a small ax, are the result of beavers.

Squirrels strip off the bark up the tree, its pieces often fall down. Particles of cones scattered on the ground are also often a sign of squirrels. The shell of nuts can also give out a squirrel under a tree, perhaps its nest is located at the top, but if there are still nuts and cones wedged into the tree, then this speaks of birds eating nuts. Near a handful of empty shells, a rodent hole can be found. If the shoot looks as if it is leveled, like a hedge, below a certain level, we can assume that this is the work of deciduous animals such as deer.

Wildlife Excrement.

Excrement is one of the clearest signs of the type of animal. By their type and size, you can judge the size of the animal, humidity indicates when they were isolated. Old excrement will be solid and odorless, and fresh will be moist and smelling. Excrement can be found on flies. The excrement of many mammals has a strong odor that forms in the glands of the rectum. This plays an important role in marking the territory and designating your gender. This data can be used when choosing trap bait..

Animals that eat plant foods, cattle, deer, and rabbits secrete round-shaped excrement containing straw. The excrement of predators, such as wild cats or foxes, has an oblong tapering shape. Some animals, such as badgers and bears, are omnivores. Break the excrement and look for signs that the animal was eating and choose the appropriate bait.

Birds are also divided into two types: those that eat meat, and those who eat seeds and fruits, which can be determined by their excrement. The excrement of smaller, seed-eating birds is small and mostly liquid, while owls and hawks can produce pellets containing undigested food items, be it fish, bird, insect or rodent.

Soft excrement suggests that there is probably reasonable water in them, as small birds should be close to it. Birds of prey, however, do not feel this need. Nests and perches can often be found by abundant excrement on the branches and ground below. Birds mainly feed on old trees, where there are signs of destruction and many larvae.

Dug land as a sign of the presence of a wild animal.

Some animals dig the earth in search of insects and tubers. This is especially true for pigs that tear large tracts of land. If the earth is loose and fresh, most likely the animal was here recently. Large, dirty pits and rookeries are usually a sign of the presence of pigs. Slight scratches on the ground may indicate that I was looking for protein roots.

Smell and sounds made by wild animals.

Listen to the sounds around and smell. They will certainly carry the signs of representatives of the animal world nearby, and where some animals are present, there will be others. Where there is prey, there is a predator. Many people underestimate the sense of smell, but you should try to reconstruct it. The smell of some animals is very strong, especially in foxes. Also, look around carefully. For example, in cold climates, the breathing of large animals condenses into steam. This haze can be seen at a fairly decent distance if you are in a comfortable position..

Burrows and lairs as signs of the presence of wildlife.

Many animals arrange their home in burrows, usually on a raised platform from the water. Some, such as rabbits and gophers, do not hide them too much, although one or two emergencies will be disguised. It’s easy to dig them out, or you can use the rod to pull the rabbit out.

Predatory animals usually hide their burrows, which are mainly located in a wooded area. Traces or excrement can give them out, which at the same time serves as a sign that the norm is used, although some animals, such as badgers, arrange permanent latrines somewhere else.

Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.
John Wiseman.

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