Long hikes, hunting, gatherings around the campfire and the forest starry sky, the weight is very attracted to romantic natures. For some, these are isolated incidents from life, and for others, it is life itself. If you belong to the second category, then you probably will be interested in information on how to build a cabin in the taiga. Based on some of the rules of construction, you can build a great place, suitable for rest from hard working days.
- Purpose and general characteristics
- 2Features and construction rules for wintering in the taiga
- 2.1Selection of a place for the construction of winter quarters in the taiga
- 2.2What material to use
- 2.3 How to build a cabin in the taiga, laying crowns
- 2.3.1 Laying “in the bowl”
- 2.3.2 Pawing
- 2.3.3 Half Tree Laying
- 2.4Production of boards
- 2.5 Making the roof and laying the floor
- 3Production of wintering stove
Purpose and general characteristics
The main inhabitants of taiga buildings are trade hunters, whose work takes place mainly in the winter. In order to have a place to settle at this time of the year, they build themselves one main and several additional huts, located throughout the forest area.
The main purpose of the hunting house is a roof over your head, strong and reliable walls that can be sheltered from the harsh taiga climate. In the cottage the hunter, and even the simple traveler, can relax, warm up, melt the oven and prepare food before the next working day.
As a rule, they do not hang locks at winter quarters, so anyone who is close will be able to enjoy hospitality. There is a weekly supply of firewood, and a simple tourist set (matches, canned food, salt, groats, etc.). The house will be useful in the summer, when many people start to go for mushrooms, berries, to fish and hunt small game. Beekeepers can come for a few days to a flower meadow.
Features and rules for the construction of winter quarters in the taiga
For the hunter-hunter or hermit, it is not the size of the building that is important, but its functionality, so options with large houses disappear immediately. Their construction will take a lot of time and effort. An experienced taiga knows that you need to build one cabin for permanent residence and a number of small path houses. The hunter has at his disposal a certain “valve” of the forest where his fishing activity takes place. There are nets, traps, traps, and, as a rule, to bypass all the possessions of one day is not enough. For this purpose, separate houses are built for the night at a distance from each other equal to one winter day of light.
How to build a cabin in the taiga alone? Prepare all the necessary tools and materials. It is better to make a list of all that may be needed in advance. It includes:
- chainsaw for cutting logs;
- measuring instruments;
- pencils and markers;
- consumables (nails, wooden planks, insulation, roofing, etc.).
List each complements based on their needs.
The internal arrangement depends on your needs. You can build shelves and cabinets for storing utensils and supplies.
After the preparatory activities, the construction of the winter hut begins. It is carried out in several stages.
Choosing a place for the construction of winter quarters in the taiga
Much depends on choosing the right place. Take this issue seriously if you plan to live in a winter hut for the whole season. Near the hut must be a source of drinking or running water and protection from the wind. Also, the house should be located on a small hill in the pit, preferably of natural origin. This will save the lower crowns from spring floods and heavy torrential rains. Look around for no dry stains around. In a gust of strong wind, they can break and cover your make-up.
If you did not find a suitable field, you will have to do it yourself. For this, trees are cut down (they can also be used for crowns), stumps are uprooted or burned, and grass is pulled out. As a result, the perimeter should be smooth and clear of vegetation. You can not build a cabin in the ravine, groundwater, especially in the spring just demolish it.
What material to use
If the structure for permanent residence is built only from pre-prepared and dried logs, then fresh material will be suitable for wintering. Of course, you don’t need to carry it, everything you need is taken on site and handled properly. In a temporary hut beauty gives way to practicality and reliability. As mentioned above, you can use the trunks cut down during the clearing of the place.
Build a cabin in the taiga from conifers. Spruce, pine, fir will do. Especially good is cedar. In addition to strength, it has a healing aroma. The first crown is recommended to be laid from larch and placed on oak hemp, prikopannyh in the ground. The result is a so-called wooden foundation. Larch practically does not rot, so the structure will last a long time.
Choose not thick trees. The diameter of the trunk should be no more than 25 cm, length 4 m. For the first three crowns, prepare trees thicker, the rest can be made thinner.
You can cope with the tray of the material yourself, if the partner was not there. One log weighs on average 120 kg, but since you will be dragging it at one end, then such a burden is quite possible for a healthy man. If the weight does not seem to lift, choose trunks thinner, but in larger quantities.
The height of the hut is small, just above human height. You can find out how many blanks you need by simple calculations. With a ceiling height of 180 cm and a log thickness of 20 cm, the consumption per wall is 9 trunks. We multiply them by 4 walls and it turns out that 36 logs will go to the perimeter. You also need to equip the floor and roof, and for them will need boards. They will also need logs. On the whole building will take about 70-75 trunks.
How to build a cabin in the taiga, laying crowns
The most crucial stage of construction begins. Felled and peeled from the branches and twigs logs are cleaned of bark. It is necessary to get rid of woody dwellers who eat up your house pretty quickly. You can remove the bark with an ax, shovel, scraper. If you want to spend a little time on this activity, start building in early May. At this time, the bark is especially easy to slazit. If possible, prepare logs in December, then after drying, they give up well to debarking.
The wreaths are laid in three ways: “in the bowl”, “in the paw” and “in the half-tree”. The latter is the easiest and fastest method of building construction.
Allows the trunks to fit snugly to each other, therefore the insertion of cracks is minimized. With this method of laying in each upper log, departing slightly from the ends, cut a semicircular recess, which will include the lower barrel. After assembly and shrinkage, log logs form a solid and not blown structure. The laying technique “in the bowl” makes the cabin warm, it does not form condensation, which causes fungus to develop.
To mark the place for the castle cut, a special tool is used – the “dash”. It consists of a handle and two parallel pointed ends. The use of this method requires some knowledge in carpentry and will take a lot of time, but the result will please you.
With this arrangement, the ends of the logs do not protrude, but form a right angle. This allows you to use the entire length of the trunk and save on material. Of the minuses highlight the possibility of drying the corners at the joints, which leads to the formation of cracks and blowing. The “paw” technology requires precise markings and experience in these works, otherwise quality construction will not work.
Connection options “in the paw” three: straight, dovetail, and with an additional spike. The first method is more in demand for temporary buildings. In the log at the ends, grooves are cut to the length of the section of the element and to a depth of half the thickness of the barrel. You can do sawing on the one hand, and it is possible with two.
This method of building wintering walls is the most convenient and does not require much skill. The ends of the logs are cut by about a quarter on top with an indent from the edge of 25-30 cm. The same is done with the bottom log. Logs are laid on each other groove in the groove.
Regardless of the way of laying all the slots and grooves are clogged wet! moss This is the most important condition. The more moss, the better and warmer will be inside in winter. It is important to use wet materials, because it does not crumble and does not fly away from the wind. With the drying of the trunks, moss will also dry out.
Window and doorways are cut in the finished walls. Cut logs are fastened together with a spike. For this, a through hole is made through all the logs into which a wooden spike is driven.
Boards will be needed for the floor and roof. Make them in place by cutting whole logs. Pick the most even trunks, without serrations, bends, thick boughs. As tools, you need only an ax. At the base of the trunk, several longitudinal cuts are made; pre-prepared wooden stakes are stuck into them. With the ax butt, the stakes are alternately hammered into the trunk and split it into boards along the fibers. It is important that the split was the same throughout its length. Although the appearance of such lumber and not very attractive, but it is more durable than the boards sawn tool.
Making the roof and laying the floor
There are two roofing options: with and without an attic. In the first case, a single or gable roof is made. Buildings with an attic more functional. On it you can carry things, tools, materials left after construction. Secondly, such wintering is obtained warmer due to the fact that the roof is lowered, and the heat is better preserved. Chip-free log houses are built faster and less material is spent for them.
Before the construction of the roof you need to equip the ceiling. For this, boards or small logs are used. As in the walls, the joints are well filled with moss. The ground is poured in as insulation, but the benefits of civilization — roofing material, plastic wrap or mineral wool — can be delivered.
For the construction of a dual-slope roof, we make supports in front and behind the hut, fixing them with brackets. They fit the horse, on top of which are based on 2-3 legs on each side. The resulting frame is covered with boards and, again, clog the joints with moss. From above, the roof is covered with foil, which is fastened with wooden planks nailed to the slabs. The last layer is roofing material, mica or metal.
The floor is made similar to the ceiling. Boards fit and canapata moss. It is advisable to fit them in size before laying, so it will be easier to work with them.
Making a wintering stove
The furnace is the heart of the taiga shelter. It will warm and feed and dry after rain. Without a heating device to live in the cabin will be impossible. Iron devices are most commonly used. They quickly melt and are able to warm the room in a few minutes. The lack of iron stoves is that they both heat up quickly and cool down quickly, so every 1-1.5 they need to be fed with a new portion of firewood. If you want to sleep at night, you can impose an iron oven bricks. As you know, this material does not heat up so quickly, but retains heat for much longer.
Think over the chimney well. This should be done at the construction stage of the roof, because it requires a hole for the withdrawal of the pipe. Usually, the furnace is placed in the middle of the hut for its uniform heating. If you install a stove in a corner, close the walls with which it contacts with metal sheets.
Taiga is a habitat for wild animals that can become uninvited guests in your refuge. To avoid this, the door must be made secure and tightly closed from the inside. Attach hooks on the ceiling for hanging supplies so that they do not reach the mice.
Wintering is not as difficult as it seems. Follow the sequence and basic rules in order to get a roof over your head before starting a winter hunt or to help the errant wanderer survive the harsh taiga laws.